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Gas Turbine Power Generation
This group of courses is aimed at engineers, trainers, maintenance
staff & plant operators

2501 Gas Turbine Major Components Design & Construction   2.5
2502 Gas Turbine Support Systems 2.0
2503 Operation of Gas Turbines 4.0
2504 Control and Protection Systems 4.0
2505 Aero-Derivative Gas Turbines 4.0
2506 Gas Turbine Routine Maintenance 2.0
2507 Gas Turbine Major Maintenance 2.0
2508 Combined Cycle Operation 4.0
2509 Gas Turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) 2.0
2510 Gas Turbine Generator and Electrical Systems 2.0 

gas turbine design & construction
operation of gas turbines

  GAS TURBINE  POWER PLANT TRAINING
Gas Turbine Power Plant  Course Descriptions

2501 - Major Components: Design & Construction 
The objective of this course, the first in the GAS TURBINE series, is to present the main construction and design features of gas turbines as used for power generation. Basic cycles are discussed, and different sizes and machine layouts are presented. After completion of this course, the participant will be able to understand the following concepts and apply them to his day to day work activities.
• The gas-turbine cycle
• Conversion of heat to mechanical energy
• Typical values of temperature and pressure "through cycle"
• Single shaft and two shaft arrangements
• Exhaust heat recovery
• The basic combined cycle
• Axial flow and centrifugal flow compressors
• Effect of pressure ratio on efficiency
• Potential for compressor stall at start-up
• Variable inlet guide vanes
• Combustor arrangements
• Combustion air, and secondary air
• Factors affecting air temperature rise through the combustion section
• Control of gas turbine output
• Combustion igniters, and flame detectors
• Water and steam injection
• Distribution of turbine energy; to compressor, generator, auxiliaries, and stack
• Gas turbine efficiency
• Regenerative heat exchangers
• Turbine reheat cycle
• Significance of gas temperature at turbine inlet
• Turbine blade cooling
• Turbine stage seals
• Turbine rotor assembly and stator assembly
• Exhaust frame arrangements
• Gas-turbine starting arrangements
• Accessory gear box drive to auxiliaries

2502 - Gas Turbine Support Systems  
The objective of this course is to present and discuss features of the various support systems and auxiliaries that are necessary for operation of the gas turbine. Both ON-BASE and OFF-BASE equipment is studied. Note, that the design of the support systems varies according to the size and purpose of the gas turbine unit. Aeroderivative machines are discussed in a separate course. Upon completion of this course, the participant should understand and be able to apply the following concepts:
• Bearing layout, journal and thrust
• Typical lubricating oil system
• Oil pumps: main, auxiliary, emergency DC
• Oil coolers, heater, strainers and filters
• Oil temperature and pressure control
• Trip (control) oil system
• Hydraulic oil system
• Air inlet system, filtration, guide vanes
• Compressed air extraction system
• Air cooling systems, bearing seals
• Atomizing air and purge air system
• Air bleed to prevent stall
• Typical fuels used in gas turbines
• Liquid fuel storage and transfer system
• Fuel pumping and heating
• Fuel strainers and filters
• On-base liquid fuel system
• Control and shut-off valves
• False start drains
• Gas fuel handling system
• On-base gas fuel system
• Dual-fuel firing system
• Significance of NOX, SOX, CO, and particulates
• NOX control systems, Low-NOX burners, SCR
• Cooling systems
• Generator cooling, air and hydrogen cooling systems
• Gas Turbine compartment cooling by air
• CO2 fire protection system

2503 - Operation of Gas Turbines  
The objective of this course is to present the factors involved in operation of the gas turbine generating unit, including typical procedures for start-up and shut-down of the unit. On-load operation is discussed with particular emphasis on operating hazards and limitation. The course generally focuses on the heavy industrial type gas turbine. Aero-derivatives are discussed in detail in tape number five in the series. Upon completion of this course, the participant should be familiar with and be able to apply the following concepts:
• Objectives of operating maneuvers
• Auto/manual operation
• Start-up prerequisites
• Auxiliary systems required for start-up
• Turning gear
• Starting device and torque convertor
• "Break away" and speed adjustment
• Necessity for unit purge
• Ignition and light-off
• Speed control to synchronization
• Start-up curve
• Minimum load setting
• Change over from start-up to operating conditions
• Permissible rate of loading
• Base load and peak load (overload)
• Governor control, speed droop characteristic
• Exhaust temperature control (override)
• Procedure for shutdown
• Need for even cooling
• Spin cooling; turning gear
• Operating hazards; mechanical, thermal, combustion
• Overspeed
• Bearing failures
• Vibration detectors
• Mechanical unbalance
• Turbine blade deposits
• Thermal unbalance, distortion, misalignment
• Conditions required for combustion
• Effects of overfiring
• Loss of ignition, explosion
• Accumulation of unburned carbon
• Need for complete monitoring and control system

2504 - Gas Turbine Control and Protection Systems
The objective of this course is to present the features of control and protection systems as used on gas turbine installations. The previous tape GT 3 dealt with operating parameters and potential hazards thus laying the groundwork for study of control and protection devices. Upon completion of this course and associated workbook, the participant should understand and be able to apply the following concepts:
• The function of the control system
• The control loop
• Sensing devices
• Actuators
• Controllers, mechanical, electronic, digital
• Reliability i.e. redundant (duplicate) equipment
• Operator interface
• Display of information
• Inputting commands
• Controlling turbine output - FSR (Fuel Stroke Reference)
• Automatic start-up sequence, permissives
• Speed sensors, switches, relays
• Modes of control, start-up, speed/load, temperature
• Pre-set FSR, Limitations
• Speed/load control, governor characteristic
• Loading rate limitations
• Automatic shut-down sequence
• Spin cooling, fired shut-down
• Exhaust temperature control
• Monitoring thermocouples, spread
• Monitoring combustion conditions
• Alarms and trips
• Flameout protection
• Overspeed protection
• Overtemperature protection
• Vibration protection

2505 - Aero-Derivative Gas Turbines  
The objective of this course is to highlight the main features of the aero-derivative type of gas turbine, drawing attention in particular to the difference when compared with the heavier industrial machines. Upon completion of this course, the participant should understand and be able to apply the following concepts:
• Suitability for application as standby generating units
• Quick start-up and loading
• Ability to perform "Black Start"
• Application of the aero jet-engine as a hot gas generator
• Use of a free turbine in the hot gas path
• Two shaft machines
• Three shaft machines
• H.P. and L.P. compressors
• Shaft speeds - N1, N2, N3
• Bearing arrangements
• Start-up by air drive to N2 shaft
• Bleed valves, automatic operation
• Annular combustors
• Pressure atomization of liquid fuel
• Start-up atomizing air assist
• Multiple fuel nozzles per combustor
• Exhaust gas temperature of the gas generator (typical)
• Twin-pac units (two GTs per generator)
• Support systems - mechanical drive auxiliaries
• Lube oil and fuel systems
• Fire protection
• Cooling systems
• Water wash system
• Operator interface
• Control panel arrangements
• Indications, controls and alarms
• Auto - controls; control modes
• Protective systems and tripping arrangements
• Operating procedures; start-up, loading, and shut-down
• Control by gas generator exhaust temperature
• Effect on unit output and efficiency of inlet air temperature

2506 - Routine Maintenance  
The objective of this course is to present the nature and purpose of different modes of maintenance, i.e. running, predictive, and preventive maintenance. Upon completion of this course, the participant should understand and be able to apply the following concepts:
• Maintenance objectives
• Operator-maintenance coordination
• Types of maintenance, definition of: running, predictive, and preventive maintenance
• Operator observations, abnormalities, defect reports
• On-line maintenance
• Off-line maintenance, permit to work, clearance
• Concept of predictive maintenance
• Critical points of measurement
• Plotting trends of pressures and temperatures
• Interpreting trends to determine outage schedules
• Interpreting trends to determine spare parts requirements
• Performance testing; fuel consumption, heat rate
• Effect of ambient conditions, correction factors
• Vibration analysis
• Unbalance, misalignment, bearing problems
• Objective of preventive maintenance
• Pre-planned, scheduled outages for maintenance
• Scheduled tasks; inspection, replacement, repair
• Typical maintenance schedule
• Definition of inspections:
1. combustion equipment
2. hot gas path
3. major overhaul
• Factors affecting frequency of inspection
• Detailed procedure for combustion inspection
• Examination by borescope

2507 - Major Maintenance  
The objective of this course is to draw attention to inspection requirements, which are similar for most types of gas turbines although mechanical details may be different. Upon completion of this course and associated workbook, the participant should understand and be able to apply the following concepts:
• Standard work practices
• Objectives of hot gas path inspection
• Components to be removed and inspected
• Preparation for work
• Need to support vertical joint
• Procedure for disassembly
• Lifting the shell
• Removal of transition pieces
• Removal of first and second stage upper nozzle assemblies
• Removal of upper first stage nozzle support ring
• Removal of upper second stage diaphragm
• Removal of interstage packing in the lower half second stage diaphragm
• Removal of first and second stage lower nozzle assembies by rolling
• Marking of components for identification
• Standard "left" or "right" identification
• Measuring clearances between rotating and stationary elements
• Cleaning and inspection of components
• Inspection requirements for nozzles, diaphragms, seals
• Dye penetrate test for cracking
• Major overhaul
• Lifting compressor upper shell
• Coupling removal
• Removal of exhaust frame and inlet casing
• Checking compressor clearances
• Disassembly of thrust and journal bearings
• Lifting the rotor
• Inspection requirements for rotor, bearings, buckets, blades, vanes, etc
• Reassembly
• Setting thrust bearing
• Setting packing seals
• Journal bearing contact check
• Spare parts requirements
• Need for manufacturer's maintenance manual for specific machines

2508 - Combined Cycle Operation  
The objective for this course is to present the main features of the Gas Turbine Combined Cycle, as employed for "Power Generation", and "Co-Generation" (process steam of gas to industry) The most common types of configurations are presented along with an examination of typical steam turbine arrangements. Operation and control of the combined unit is also discussed in some detail, with the exception of the HRSG which is demonstrated in course 2509. Upon completion of this course and associated workbook, the participant should understand and be able to apply the following concepts:
• Awareness of the large amount of heat contained in the exhaust gas
• Recovery of exhaust heat through the HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator)
• The advantage of dual pressure and triple pressure HRSG's
• Applications of HP steam, IP steam, and LP steam
• Feedwater heating by the economizer
• Final exit gas temperature to the stack
• Effect of gas turbine load reduction on exhaust gas temperature
• Control of air (and gas) flow by inlet guide vanes in order to control exhaust gas temperature
• The use of auxiliary burners to increase gas temperature at the HRSG inlet
• Typical configurations of combined cycle units
• The use of the HRSG gas by-pass
• The use of HRSG steam by-pass to the condenser
• Steam turbine sliding pressure operation, accompanying load changes on the gas turbines
• The use of back pressure turbines to provide steam for process use
• The need for auxiliary boilers where process steam is supplied
• The use of condensing steam turbines with steam extraction for process
• Typical steam turbine arrangements for combined cycle units
• Condenser arrangements
• Re-heat steam turbines for combined cycles
• Steam turbine support systems
• Condenser operation and CW systems
• Gland steam system operation
• Start-up and operation of the combined cycle unit
• Control of pressure raising in the HRSG
• Control of steam temperature at the steam turbine inlet

2509 - The HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) 
The objective of this course is to continue the discussion on combined cycle installations with particular focus upon the HRSG, and associated condensate and feed systems. Upon completion of this course, the participant should understand and be able to apply the following concepts:

• Heat transfer
• Natural circulation and forced circulation
• Typical HRSG construction
• Function of economizer, evaporator, superheater
• Steam drum internals
• Steam drum external connections
• Steam fundamentals, saturation, wet steam, superheat
• Pendant and horizontal superheater construction
• Superheater drains and vents
• Steam temperature control, desuperheater
• Reheater arrangements
• Function of safety valves
• Multi-pressure HRSG's
• Dampers, air sealing arrangements
• Fired section, fuel system, control
• Location of SCR for NOx control
• Monitoring gas temperature through the HRSG
• Effect of low stack temperature: dew point
• Condensate and feedwater system
• Condensate pump pressure
• Extraction heating and condensate preheating by gas
• Deaeration: Deaerator pressure and temperature
• Feed pumps; Pressure requirements, recirculation
• Cycle control: D/A level, hotwell level
• Make-up; Demineralizer
• HRSG trips - causes and effects
• Drum - level; three element control
• Boiler water control, limits, blowdown

2510 - The Generator and Electrical Systems 
The objective of this course is to draw attention to important operating parameters of the POWER GENERATOR. A review of fundamentals is included as an aid to understanding the significance of generator control. Upon completion of this course, the participant should understand and be able to apply the following concepts:

• The generator's function: energy conversion
• Features of generator construction
• Stator winding, rotor winding
• Static exciter, collector rings, rotating exciter
• Open cycle air cooling
• Closed cycle air cooling
• Advantages of hydrogen cooling
• Hydrogen pressure control, leakage compensation
• Hydrogen seals, seal oil system
• Hydrogen explosive range
• Procedures for purging
• Fundamentals of ac generation
• Relationship between frequency, speed, and number of poles
• Single phase and 3-phase generation
• 3-phase system
• Required conditions for synchronizing
• Controlling generator power output
• Reason for change in power output requirements
• Combined operation of governors
• Load sharing between parallel generators
• Static excitation system
• Brushless excitation system
• Effect of changing excitation current
• Control of voltage and MVAR output
• System demand for MVARS
• Generator MVA output
• Power factor
• Generator capability curve



hydro electric
electricity
turbine power
plant efficiency
substations, transformers
plant maintenance
plant control systems
NERC continuing ed

Gas turbine power plant training, components of gas turbines, gas turbine cycle, gas turbine support systems, operation of gas turbines, aero-derivative gas turbines, routine & major maintenance of gas turbines and gas turbine control & protection systems



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